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Départment: The Indre-and-Loire - 37 - Geography
Area: Center
Surface: 6 127 km²
Population: 529 345 inhabitants (census 1990).

The Touraine is integral part of the Paris basin. It is drained of is in west by the average Loire and its affluents, with the junction of Expensive, of Indre and Vienna enlarged of the Hollow one. Principal geographical contrast appears between the plates and the valleys or small valleys; the relief is in hollow. Almost everywhere with the edge of the valleys the chalk turonienne, easy appears to dig for the cellars in rock. The North-West belongs to Vaux Dormouse, without the departmental limit arriving to the Dormouse itself. Gâtine tourangelle is a country of wood and field crop which covers all Touraine of the North-East; the canton of
Château-Renault is attached to Small Beauce. In extreme cases of the Maine-and-Loire, the basin of Savigné, falunier, changes mixed-farming with the crag extraction of compaction. The Loire crosses, upstream, the game preserves of Touraine, grounds of cultures or truck farming on the rich person alluvia ground, who are dominated by the slopes with vineyards: soils of Amboise, Montlouis, Vouvray. Downstream from Tours, country of the islands of Low Touraine (between the Loire, Expensive and Indre) practical the breeding and market gardening. There remain nothing any more but some professional fishermen for salmons and aloses of the Loire. The vine covers the tuffs, sands and gravels, in the north of the Loire in high valley of Anjou (Bourgueil names and Saint-Nicolas-of-Bourgueil), between the Loire and Vienna and in the south of low-Vienna (Chinon name). The plates with cereals of Champeigne and the Sainte-Maure area (goat's milk cheeses) are limited towards the east by the gâtines of Montrésor and Loches (forests, mixed-farming), and towards south-east by the first ponds of Brenne. Diversified breeding and culture find in extreme cases of the department of Vienna in the valleys of Claise, Hollow, low Vienna like in Richelais, fertile soil in the past poitevin.

L' industry is related either to the agricultural resources (agro-alimentary) or with the facility of the communications; zones of light industries, in the tourangelle agglomeration and close to the small cities like Château-Renault, Amboise, Bléré, Loches, Preuilly, Descartes, Sainte-Maure, Azay-le-Rideau, Langeais, Bourgueil, Chinon, L'Ile-Bouchard, Richelieu. Activity ratio 40,3 % compared to the total population. Distribution by branches of industry: agriculture 12 %, industry and BTP 27 %, trades and services 61 %. the department of Indre- the and-Loire, except for its urbanized center which is the tourangelle agglomeration, leaves a broad place to the natural zones. Wooded spaces cover 22 % of the surface, with several famous forests, domanial like those of Chinon and Loaches, private like those of Amboise and Castle-the-Vallière. The Loire, "river royal", is not used any more for navigation since progress of the rail-bound and road transports; it remains a capricious river: long strikes in summer, believed in winter or in spring; from where need for the liftings of the Loire, unceasingly sophisticated since XIIème century. Expensive and Indre are channeled in a series of levels. The very many mills formerly on rivers and brooks, and also the old windmills, became second homes or go tourist. The valleys and small valleys, with the very green landscapes, cultivated well and abundantly flowered, made call Touraine "the garden of France" since at least XVème century. Fishing remains active as a leisure, as well as hunting with shooting and courre in the principal wooded solid masses rich in stags, roe-deers, wild boars. The chalk, which forms the basement almost everywhere, appears out of cliffs at the edge of the valleys; from where many habitats troglodytic, probably as old as the appearance of the man in Touraine, but often arranged today with all desirable comfort. Several very active companies take care of the protection of the richesse. .



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